2019 NACE Northern Area Western Conference
February 1, 2019

This three-day conference will focus on corrosion and asset integrity management in oil and gas and other industries, and explore the integration of sustainable practices within the corrosion industry.

  • Location: Telus Convention Centre, Calgary, AB
  • Dates: February 5-7, 2019
  • Skystone and Acuren Booth: #413


  • High-Temperature Degradation Mechanisms of 304H which Resulted in Reactor Failure on Tuesday February 5 (2:45 – 3:15 PM)
  • Composite Pipelines Outside of Connections and Preventive Actions on Wednesday February 6 (3:15 – 3:45 PM)
  • Simulations of Corrosion Defect Growth underneath Disbonded Coatings of Buried Pipelines on Wednesday February 6 (1:00 – 1:30 PM)

The booth focus is on complete Pipeline Integrity Management (Engineering, Cathodic Protection, Inspection).

Together, Skystone and Acuren offer a complete pipeline integrity management program that covers the entire life cycle of pipelines, from cradle to grave.

Our services are focused on identification of degradation mechanisms proactively preventing, monitoring, and inspecting to combat these mechanisms. This includes, but is not limited to:

  • Designing programs for mitigation, monitoring and inspection of new and existing pipelines
  • Assessing Risk across pipeline systems
  • Conducting Engineering & Fitness-For-Service Assessments (all levels)
  • Supporting clients through Regulatory Audits
  • Conducting Program Gap Assessments for continual improvement
  • Analyzing failures and establishing failure root-cause
  • Designing & constructing cathodic protection systems, and surveying existing pipelines and tanks
  • Providing basic and advanced NDE services
  • Supplying engineering support to specify, select and source line pipe material for new construction

Our services are offered through a great team of 4000 employees located in more than 90 locations across North America.

HAWKEYE is the technology we are demonstrating, details of which are in this brochure.

High-Temperature Degradation Mechanisms of 304H Resulted In Reactor Failure

Frank Gareau, P.Eng., IPVI, Skystone International
Alex Tatarov Ph.D, P.Eng., Skystone International
Jason Caron, Facility Inspector, Keyera – Alberta Envirofuels
TRACK 3 – Asset Integrity Facilities, Presentation February 5, 2019, 2:45 PM


A leak occurred in an Oleflex reactor that resulted in a fire. Circumferential cracks developed in the reactor shell and through inspection methods, cracks were found in similar locations in different reactors of this type. The failure was attributed to several contributing factors including a combination of the reactor design, thermal issues, and high-temperature material degradation.

An extensive NDE inspection program, and fitness for service assessment in combination with a destructive failure analysis allowed to evaluate high-temperature degradation mechanisms and to establish their contribution to the failure.

Numerous degradation mechanisms and ways they were addressed by inspection and evaluated in the root cause analysis (RCA) will be discussed. These degradation mechanisms include sensitization, sigma-phase embrittlement, hydrogen embrittlement, high temperature hydrogen attack, blistering, HIC and SOHIC, creep, welding stress and reheat cracking, stress corrosion cracking, and high-temperature oxidation.

Remediation actions included different approaches to repair the reactor and modifications to the design.

Non-Linear Finite Element Simulations of Corrosion Defect Growth underneath Disbonded Coatings of Buried Pipelines

Ibrahim Gadala, Ph.D, Skystone International
Track 1 – Corrosion Mechanisms and Modelling, Presentation February 6, 2019, 1:00 PM


A nonlinear finite element model simulating the growth of corrosion defects in crevices existing underneath disbonded coatings of buried pipelines is presented in this paper. Potential distributions in the trapped water beneath pipeline coating disbondments are modeled in conjunction with reaction kinetics on the corroding exposed steel surface using a moving boundary mesh. With model inputs based on results extracted from representative electrochemical experiments, it is found that temperature dependencies of reaction kinetics, within the 25 to 50 ºC range, do not strongly affect final corrosion defect geometries after 3-year simulation periods. Conversely, cathodic protection (CP) levels within the -0.75 to -1 VSCE range and pH dependencies within the near-neutral pH range (6.7 – 8.5) strongly govern depth profiles caused by corrosion, reaching a maximum of approximately 3 mm into the pipeline wall. The simulations show that a 0.25 V amplification of CP potential combined with a 0.5 mm widening in disbondment opening size can reduce defect penetration in the pipeline wall by almost 30%. This paper is part of an overall work which integrates a corrosion model with a stress analysis model for pipeline integrity analysis using numerical methods.

Different Failure Modes of Composite Pipelines Outside Of Connections And Preventive Actions

Alex Tatarov Ph.D, P.Eng., Skystone International
Frank Gareau, P.Eng., IPVI, Skystone International
TRACK 1 – Corrosion Mechanisms and Modelling, Presentation February 6, 2019, 3:15 PM


Non-metallic pipelines are often selected as alternative to steel pipelines. They are relatively new and experience failure modes that are often different compared to steel pipelines. A lack of understanding of specific properties of non-metallic pipelines results in numerous failures. The presentation provides an overview of the different modes of failure in composite pipelines. It is based on actual case studies of field pipeline failures over the past 20 years.

Numerous contributing factors will be discussed: manufacturing defects, chemical incompatibility, construction and installation practices, connection issues, geotechnical issues, pipeline geometry, pressure variations, temperature, liquid hammer, water and gas diffusion, wildlife interference, decompression, ice formation, etc.

Possible remediation actions include: improving construction practices, adjusting operating procedures, pressure control, considering all load cases at design stage, updating operating manuals to reflect composite pipelines.

Improvements in the pipeline code CSA Z662 will contribute to prevention of these failures in the future.

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